NAFTA has three primary dispute resolution mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the settlement mechanism for countries. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and has been maintained in its original form from NAFTA to the USMCA. In such cases, complaints filed by USMCA Member States against the duration of the contract would be violated.  In Chapter 19, the justifications for anti-dumping or countervailing duties are managed. Without Chapter 19, the avenue of recourse for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that an USMCA body hears the case and acts as an international commercial tribunal to arbitrate the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, which until now existed in the agreement. After U.S. President Donald Trump took office in January 2017, he tried to replace NAFTA with a new agreement and began negotiations with Canada and Mexico.
In September 2018, the United States, Mexico and Canada reached an agreement to replace NAFTA with the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), and the three countries had ratified it until March 2020. Nafta remained in effect until the implementation of the USMCA.  In April 2020, Canada and Mexico informed the United States that they were ready to implement the agreement.  The USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020 and replaced NAFTA. According to a 2018 Sierra Club report, Canada`s NAFTA and Paris Agreement commitments have been met. The Paris commitments were voluntary and NAFTA was mandatory.  One of the most affected agricultural sectors was the meat industry. In 2004, Mexico moved from a small player in the U.S. export market to the second largest importer of U.S. agricultural products, and NAFTA may have been an important catalyst for this change. Free trade has removed barriers to business between the two countries, allowing Mexico to offer a growing meat market in the United States and increase sales and profits for the meat industry in the United States. A simultaneous and dramatic increase in Mexican GDP per capita has significantly changed meat consumption patterns due to increased per capita meat consumption.
 One of President Trump`s main objectives in the renegotiation is to ensure that the agreement benefits American workers. The United States, Mexico and Canada have approved a laboratory chapter that brings work obligations to the heart of the agreement, makes them fully applicable and is the strongest provisions of any trade agreement. On December 10, 2019, the three countries reached a revised USMCA agreement. On January 29, 2020, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs Chrystia Freeland introduced the USMCA C-4 Transposition Act in the House of Commons and passed the first reading without a registered vote. On February 6, the bill passed second reading in the House of Commons by 275 votes to 28, with the Bloc Québécois voting against and all other parties voting in its favour, and it was referred to the Standing Committee on International Trade.    On 27 February 2020, the committee voted to send the bill to Parliament for third reading, without amendments.