From 1 January 2012, GRTgaz is implementing a modular transfer contract to facilitate shippers` access to the network. A number of EU member states depend on Russian natural gas delivered by Ukraine, which has often been interrupted following disputes. The MOVE by U.S. lawmakers is part of an initiative to counter Russian influence in Europe, but European lawmakers have said the U.S. should defend itself for its own business. (17.12.2019). In 2019, Russian gas exports to Europe (under Gazprom Export contracts) amounted to 199 billion cubic metres. Gazprom`s activities in the European gas market are underpinned by long-term contracts with take or pay clauses. .